It also made this ideal an effective reality by firmly establishing positions of leadership on those who earlier had been oppressed and weakened.
It has been established that in the past, as now, science and scientists flourish in large communities and linguistic groups rather than small, in affluent areas better than in poor. This explanation gets the chronology wrong.
But complete convergence is not projected to occur in the next two decades, as the trend lines in the above graph shows. In Muslim-majority countries, it is estimated at seven years from 62 to 68when calculated from unrounded numbers.
The situation changed at the end of the sixteenth century with the rise of Holland, England and France as the dominant forces in world trade. It was only through the unity of Syria and Egypt under the Ayyubids and the, Mamelukes, and through the military system that was adopted, that the Crusaders were finally defeated and expelled.
There were also other motives behind these wars. We have given above various factors which led to the decline of the Islamic lands including the Ottoman Empire, notably the capitulations.
In view of the interdependence, the failure of any part of the system can cause society to decline. In that regard, they acquired expertise in philosophy, logic, the sciences and scientific methods and developed a systematic method of logical reasoning.
Some Muslim-majority countries already have considerably older populations than others. These factors were generally caused by the fact that these empires were autocratic and large.
Therefore, we deemed it useful to publish here our analysis of the factors behind the decline of Islamic science after the sixteenth century. But for the assistance obtained by the foreigners through the treachery of one section of the Muslims and the zeal with which the latter rendered them help against their own countrymen and brethren, these foreigners would have neither usurped their sovereignty and established their rule over them nor acted in such a manner as to contravene and supercede their religious laws and undermine the foundations of those social codes and conventions which are the offsprings of those laws, nor would they have dragged down the Muslims into the valley of the shadow of death and laid them to a disgraceful death.
All of these conditions are associated with higher fertility rates. See the discussion of contraception and family planning. Many towns remained desolate, and there was carnage in the countryside too.
These coincide with periods when the organization of society was stagnant or decadent. When the central government was weakened or disappeared, the irrigation works were neglected, and when, in addition, these works were destroyed by the Mongol invasions, as had happened in Iraq in the thirteenth century, agricultural lands became arid or turned into marshes and the whole economy and civilization of the region were destroyed.
This resulted also in a hostile relationship with Europe, which was considered as a continuation of the Crusades and which sapped the energy of the empire. Many immigrants to the Gulf region, for example, are from other Muslim-majority countries, and a substantial amount of internal migration occurs within the Middle East, as people move in search of employment and to escape conflicts.
If, therefore, the Islamic nations, following in the footsteps of their illustrious ancestors, act as they have been commanded, or at least, like the Europeans, sacrifice their persons and properties for defending their honor and heritage and for resisting aggressors, they will certainly be entitled to the same blessings as others have enjoyed by dint of their sufferings and sacrifices, and will find themselves in safety and security by the grace of God.
In addition, there are the crafts and industrial skills inherited over thousands of years. The Future of Islamic Science After the Second World War, most Islamic lands became independent once again, but the scars of long colonial rule remained.
The most disastrous effect of the Mongol invasion was depopulation.
These included textiles, clothing, paper, dyes, sugar, chemicals, leather, glass, machine tools, pumps, guns and ammunition, and many other products. These Muslims would hardly deserve any recompense from God even if they had not engaged in conspiracies against their own religion, or placed themselves at the beck and call of the covetous foreigners for undermining their own nation, or lent their shoulders to be used as a ladder for the foreigner to climb on to power and wealth.
If the foreign intruders in Muslim countries are enraged at those Muslims who refuse to betray their own brethren in pursuance of foreign behests, it is because most Muslims offer help to these foreigners betraying their own brethren and enthusiastically assist them with advice against their own nation and faithfully cooperate with these foreigners from greed and perfidy.
In other words, a revolution in science was necessary. The best work of Dar al-Hikma was done under him, for by that time experience told, and Hunayn was surrounded by well-trained pupils.
The Crusades Between and their final defeat in no fewer than seven Crusades were mounted against the Arab lands; one Crusade was mounted against Constantinople. As the youth bulge moves along, the portion of the population in Muslim-majority countries between ages 30 and 44 is projected to remain fairly stable or rise slightly, from Yet they remain, on average, higher than in the rest of the developing world and considerably higher than in more-developed countries.What factors led to the economic and military decline of the Islamic empires?
Economically the Islamic empire's expansion started slowing and they faced the problem of supporting their institutions with limited resources. May 16, · factors behind the decline of islamic science AFTER THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY  Nature, the international journal of science, with headquarters in London, has published on 2 November an issue devoted mainly to Islam and Science.
Let us, therefore, first of all examine the factors that contributed to their greatness and advancement, before investigating the causes that led to their decline and fall. The causes of the advancement of the Muslims were, briefly, those originating in Islam, which made its advent in the Arabian Peninsula.
Video: Factors that Led to the Decline of Islamic Spain Islamic Spain was once the most advanced and open civilization in Europe or the Middle East.
This lesson explains how. Jan 26, · (See the Related Factors section for a discussion of how these factors affect the global Muslim population.) The overall trends in fertility, however, mask a considerable amount of variation from country to country. Factors that contributed to the rise of the Muslims.
Before considering the reasons for decline it is logical to consider the reasons why Muslim civilisation was successful for such a long period. In the author's opinion: "What Islam did was to activate all the developmental factors in a positive direction.Download