Since the DRA is presently the closest assessment to the actual reading process, teachers can use the information to not only monitor student progress, but to learn what their next teaching move should be. The DRA is an authentic performance based assessment in which children are responding to real text through retelling Williams, At the end of the RR program, children develop a self-extending system that uses a variety of strategies to read increasingly difficult text and to independently write their own messages Clay, RR provides one-to-one tutoring, five days per week, 30 minutes a day, by a specially trained teacher.
There is a retelling fluency component that is not valid or reliable since it is not standardized at the present time. Elkonin was the creator of sound boxes, a phonological technique for writing and segmenting words.
One of the most consistent findings is that phoneme-identification and phoneme-sequencing training are the only phoneme-analysis skills that impact reading test scores McGuinness, They claim that these assessments will predict how well children will do in reading comprehension by the end of third grade, yet they do not include one subtest to assess comprehension.
Project Optimize, a scripted program, was designed for children who need early, intensive intervention in phonological awareness, letter names, letter sounds, word reading, spelling, and simple-sentence reading. Clay notes that children may develop phonemic awareness in reading in other learning activities such as playing with rhyme or exploring beginning writing.
Balanced Approach and Code-Emphasis Presently there are two differing points of view theorists have on teaching reading. At grade 2 there are two subtests and at grade 3 there is one subtest.
Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness is the awareness of the sounds phonemes that make up spoken words. What a child knows about written language, not phonemic awareness, when he or she enters school is the best predictor of success in learning to read.
These researchers believe that attaining proficiency in phonological awareness and alphabetic understanding in kindergarten allows the instructional focus to shift to the next higher-order skill such as blending, word reading, and comprehension in optimizing reading development.
The major purpose of the DRA is to help guide instruction. The fluency tasks for first grade are: According to Coyne et. Daily minute lessons include 15 minutes of phonological and alphabetical understanding and 15 minutes of handwriting letters and spelling.
The fluency tasks for second grade are nonsense word fluency and oral reading fluency, and in third grade, the fluency task is oral reading fluency.
Reading Reading is a complex system of deriving meaning from print that requires all of the following:Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers Section 7- Data from Action Research in Waterford - 3 - Throughout this guide, key messages for teachers are highlighted in Phonemic awareness and the teaching of phonics Decoding and word studies, including the learning of a sight vocabulary.
- Classroom Action Research Project I chose to focus reading with a first grade student. This student has missed a lot of school in the past and has moved around frequently. On the FAST assessment, this student scored at the bottom of all first graders. The English Alphabetic Code plus The Synthetic Phonics Teaching Principles (without pictures) including the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols alongside the easy-to-use symbols Synthetic Phonics Phonetic Alphabet English Spelling Jolly Phonics Kindergarten Fun Speech Pathology Early Literacy Second Phonics Rules.
Best Practices. in Literacy: Study and Strategies. SAU # K preparation must take into consideration research-based findings and an appropriate instructional design for developing the basic concepts needed to produce readers and writers. The instructional components necessary for systematic synthetic phonics.
Integration of Phonics into Elementary Reading Programs Synthetic phonics: A method of teaching reading by training an individual to pronounce This review will focus in the area phonics in kindergarten and first grade. This literature review will define reading and phonemic awareness and present two differing views on the reading process.
The Early Reading Intervention program and the Reading Recovery program are described and compared in consideration of the most recent research on components of effective programs for young struggling readers.